Experimental Investigation Of Sp Flooding In Of The Niger Delta

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                          ii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                 iii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                       iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                                     v

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                                                         vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                 viii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                               ix

ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                                                x

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                             xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0       Overview of Study

1.1       Objectives of the study

1.2       Statement of the problem

1.3       Significance of Study

1.4       Scope/Limitation of study

1.5       Hypothesis

1.6       Research questions

1.7       Research methodology

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0       Why surfactant polymer flooding?

2.1       Review of surfactants

2.1.1  Types of surfactants

2.1.1.1   Anionic surfactants

2.1.1.2   Non – ionic surfactants

2.1.1.3   Cationic surfactants

2.1.1.4    Zwitterionic (amphoteric) surfactants

2.1.2   Micro-emulsion and CMC

2.1.3   Phase behaviour

2.1.3.1    Phase behaviour observation

2.1.4   Surfactant Retention

2.1.5   Surfactant mechanisms

2.1.5.1    Interfacial tension

2.1.5.2    Capillary number

2.1.6    Surfactant flooding and types

2.1.6.1   Micellar/polymer flooding

2.1.6.2   Alkaline Surfactant polymer (ASP) flooding

2.1.7   Surfactant Evaluation

2.2      Polymer/polymer flooding

2.2.1   Polymer

2.2.2   Types of polymer

2.2.2.1   Synthetic polymers

2.2.2.2    Biopolymers

2.2.3   Characteristics of polymers used for IOR processes

2.2.3.1    Hydratibility

2.2.3.2    Rheology

2.2.4    Polymer flooding

2.3       Polymer augmented surfactant flooding

2.4       Successful applications and researches so far

2.4.1    Shengli Oilfield, SINOPEC

2.4.2    Dagang Oilfield

2.4.3    Other research work on SP flooding

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0       Research methodology

3.1       Materials and equipment used

3.2       Cores

3.3       Preparation of reagents

3.3.1   Brine preparation

3.3.2   Chemical slug preparation

3.4       Crude oil properties

3.5       Experimental set-up

3.6       Determining porosity

3.7       Experimental procedure

CHAPTER: RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.0       Results and discussion.

4.1       Oil flooding (drainage)

4.2       Water-flooding.

4.3        Experiment 1 – Core A

4.4        Experiment 2 – Core B

4.5        Experiment 3 – Core T

4.6        Experiment 4 – Core R

4.7        Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0        Conclusions and recommendation

5.1        Recommendations

ABSTRACT

With ever crude oil and the present low cost per , it is highly uneconomical for new , thus there is no need to maximise from the existing reservoir.

is an improved oil recovery that can mobilise more oil to the surface from an oil reservoir. In this paper, we investigated the potential application of SP flooding in a shallow oil reservoir X, located in the Central-Onshore of the Niger Delta.

Four different rocks were used namely; ROBU synthetic cores (2 different porosity and permeability classes), a widely accepted model rock (Bentheimer sandstone) and a low permeability-high porosity reservoir rocks (obtained from the Central Onshore of the Niger Delta) were used.

Hengfloc 63020 polymer in combination with Shell Enordet O242 surfactant (supplied by Shell research centre) constituted the slug used in this work.

The reservoir condition was simulated using the reservoir oil and low salinity brine of 2300ppm. Initial water-flooding experiments were carried out on the crude oil sample at surface conditions, which was followed by surfactant-polymer flooding at the same conditions.

Furthermore, analysis of the effluent collected during the experiment was carried out to determine oil recovery.

The results show that firstly, SP flooding can mobilize a substantial amount of by-passed oil in the reservoir after the water-flooding.

Secondly, a remarkable increase in oil recovery when compared with the literature data shows its applicability in the reservoir of interest. Recovery of above 37% of the OIIP and displacement efficiency of over 50% was recorded.

Accordingly, the surfactant-polymer recovery technique is applicable in the Niger Delta, and similar depositional environments. Thus, the practice of abandoning depleted reservoirs in this region can be replaced by using surfactant-polymer flooding to recover residual oil entrapped in the reservoirs.

INTRODUCTION

For most of the oilfields in the world, at least half of the reserved oil is left behind after the primary (natural flow) method is exhausted.

Numerous techniques have been established in the past decades aiming to enhance the energy of the viscous fingered/channelled reservoirs after extensive water injection to improve oil recovery. This process is called improved oil recovery (IOR).

Among all the IOR techniques, surfactant-polymer flooding is one of the most promising techniques because of its effectiveness in improving displacement efficiency.

The intent of the surfactant polymer flooding technique is to:

  • Improve sweep efficiency by reducing the mobility ratio between the injected fluid and in-place fluids.
  • Eliminate or reduce capillary and interfacial forces, and thus improve displacement efficiency.
  • Act on both phenomena simultaneously.

The first intent of surfactant polymer flooding is what a polymer achieves. A polymer is a chemical substance that is made up of monomers.

From the word ‘poly’ which means many, and the word ‘mono’ which means single or one, the definition of a polymer is easily understood. Polymers are used in almost every sphere of life: from the household item e.g. cellophane, to industrial polymers e.g. rubber.

In improved oil recovery operations, a polymer is used to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency of water to oil in the reservoir. A polymer does this by increasing the viscosity of the water injected into the reservoir, and by reducing the permeability of the rock to water.

It, therefore, means that any polymer to be used for chemical IOR operation has to be water-soluble. There are many types of polymers, but the two most commonly used in chemical IOR operations are: partially hydrolysed polyacrylamides and the xanthan biopolymers.

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