Indigenous and Emerging Adaptive Agricultural Technologies to Climate Change in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.


The study ascertained indigenous and emerging adaptive agricultural technologies to climate change in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Data were collected from 400 respondents through the use of a semi-structured interview schedule using a multi-stage random sampling technique. The collected data were analyzed using percentages, mean scores, and factor analysis.

The findings revealed that the majority (89.8%) of the respondents were aware of climate change though only 9.0% of them knew of climate change to a great extent; it was found that the majority (94.8%) of the respondents had knowledge of climate change effects on their farming activities.

The findings also showed that respondents sourced information on climate change from radio/television (61.0%), newspapers (44.0%), and friends (43.8%).

The major perceived causes of climate change by the respondents were burning of fossil fuel (M=4.19), gas flaring from oil companies (M =4.03), high temperature due to ozone layer depletion (M =3.99), and gases released from industries (M =3.92).

The result also showed that bush burning, cutting down of trees, cooking with firewood, crude oil spillage are further causes of climate change.

The major perceived effects of climate change on farming activities included: low (M =3.34), late-onset of rains (M = 3.36), heat from high temperature (M =3.29), high rate of weed growth (M =3.00), poor crop yield (M =2.98), and decrease in soil moisture (M =2.95).

Findings further showed that about 24% of the respondents had contact with extension workers in the last year.

The mean distribution on available extension activities on climate change revealed that there were limited activities on climate change issues in the study area.

It was further revealed that organic manure (72.0%), cover cropping (71.8%), minimum/zero tillage (57.2%), mixed farming practices (77.2%), mulching (64.5%), increased frequency of weeding cropped land (67.5%).

Use of inorganic manure (74.2%),u se of crop varieties that are well acclimated to adverse climate (45.0%), use of chemicals like herbicides and insecticides (53.8%), use of early maturing crop variety (57.5%), change of planting dates (51.2%) were the adaptive technologies been used by farmers in adapting to negative effects of climate change.

Constraints to climate change adaptation included: lack of relevant information (M =4.18), low awareness level (M =3.91), irregularities of extension services with regard to climate change adaptation (M =3.88), poor government attention to climate problems (M =3.88) and inability to access available information (M =3.78).

Factor analysis further grouped the constraints to adaptation into 3 factors: institutional problems, government failures, and resistance to change.

Findings further revealed that the majority (66.8%) of the respondents were aware of the ban on indiscriminate tree felling, 64.2% were aware of the ban on indiscriminate bush burning, while (58.2%) knew of promotion on afforestation as governments policies/programmes on climate change mitigation.

About 42% of the respondents perceived the ban on indiscriminate tree felling as being well implemented. Further findings revealed that only 24% of the respondents in the study were aware of the existence of climate change committees in the National Assembly.

The study concluded that there is a need to improve access to extension and provide farm inputs that are relevant to ensure that farmers have information relevant for making informed decisions.

There is need also to provide effective and reliable access to information on climate change in order to dissuade the minds of farmers from a spiritual angle and bring to reality the need to put hands together in the bid to salvage agricultural production.


Title page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgment v
Abstract vii
Table of contents viii
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
List of pictures xii


1.1 Background information 1
1.2 Problem statement 5
1.3 Study objectives 9
1.4 Significance of study 9


2.1 Concepts of climate change 11
2.1.1 Greenhouse gases and global warming 12
2.1.2 Nigeria and global warming 14
2.2 Causes and impacts of climate change 16
2.2.1 Causes of climate change 16
2.2.2 Impacts of climate change 18 Impacts on agriculture 20 Impacts on health 24
2.2.3 Socio-economic impacts 25
2.4 Climate change awareness and adaptation mechanisms 26
2.4.1 Adaptation measures 29
2.5 Concepts of communication and communication channels 34
2.5.1 Characteristics of communication 37
2.5.2 Communication channels and climate change 38
2.6 Extension workers and use of communication channels 39
2.7 Some climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts in Nigeria 42
2.8 Conceptual framework 44


3.1 Area of study 49
3.2 Population and sample 50
3.3 Data collection 51
3.4 Measurement of variables 52
3.5 Data analysis 54
3.6 Limitation of study 55


4.1 Socio-economic characteristics of respondents’ 56
4.2 Respondents’ level of climate change awareness 60
4.3 Sources of information on climate change 64
4.4 Perceived causes of climate change 65
4.5 Perceived effects of climate change on farming activities 69
4.6 Extension activities related to climate change 74
4.7 Adaptive strategies adopted by respondents’ 77
4.8 Constraints to climate change adaptation 79
4.9 Respondents perception of Government policies/programmes on
climate change 84


5.1 Summary of findings 88
5.2 Conclusion 90
5.3 Recommendations 91


1.1 Background Information

change refers to a that is attributed directly or indirectly to activity that the of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (UNFCCC) 1992).

Climate change is one of the most serious environmental threats facing the world today.

It is a massive threat to human development and in some places, it is already undermining the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the international communities’ efforts to reduce extreme poverty.

The issue of climate change is global and Nigeria is not excluded from its threats as a sea-level rise of just 0.2m due to climate change could flood over 3,400 km2 of the country’s coastland.

One prediction is that “Nigeria will lose close to $9 billion as a result of such a disaster while at least 80% of the inhabitants of the Niger Delta will be displaced due to large areas being below sea level in the oil‐rich region (Guardian, September 17 2001).

More than two‐thirds of Nigeria is prone to desertification. Climate change is predicted to worsen the incidence of drought and desertification and millions of people will be turned into refugees because of the disaster.


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