Socio-Demographic Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence among Couples in Enugu North Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria.


The study investigated the socio-demographic correlates of intimate partner violence among couples in Enugu North Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria.

The population of the study comprised all he registered married couples in Enugu North senatorial  zone  from  2011- 2015. 868 respondents made up 434 couples were sued as sample.

The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire entitled: Intimate Partner Violence Question (IPVQ) five research questions and four hypotheses guided the study.

The research questions were answered using person product moment correlation while regression  analysis was used  to  test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

The results obtained showed that Nigerian couples are faced with different types of intimate partner violence which are: physical violence, psychological violence and sexual violence;

Age of the couples and their  employment status were the socio-demographic factors that significantly correlate with intimate partner violence among couples and that gender and educational status did not correlate with intimate partner violence significantly.

Based on the findings, recommendations for implementation include organization confirming marriages such as families, religious groups, hospitals, courts etc, ensuring that their clients pass  through  marital counselling with professional marriage counsellors among others.

Table Of Contents

Title Page                     i

Approval                      ii

Certification                iii

Dedication                iv

Acknowledgment                    v

Table of Contents                     vi

List of Tables                         vii

Abstract                                   viii


Background of the Study               1

Statement of the Problem             15

Purpose of the Study                   15

Significance of the Study                16

Scope of the Study                          18

Research Questions                         18

Hypotheses                                        18


Conceptual Framework                        21

Concept of Intimate partner                    21

Concept of Violence                                   21

Concept of Intimate partner violence            23

Concept of Couples                                             24

Concept of Employment Status                      24

Concept of Educational Status                      25

Concept of Age                                              25

Concept of Gender                                   26

Conceptual Relationship of the Variables             26

Theoretical Framework                                   27

Social Learning Theory by Bandura (1977)      27

General Aggression Model by Anderson &  Bushman (2002)      28

General Strain Theoryby Agnew (1992)                          29

Review of Empirical Studies                                             30

Summary of Literature Review                     37


Design of the Study                        39

Area of the Study                           39

Population of the Study                 40

Sample and Sampling Techniques                40

Instrument for Data Collection                   41

Validation of the Instrument                      41

Reliability of the Instrument                     41

Method of Data Collection                       42

Method of Data Analysis             42


Summary of the Findings    49


Discussion of Findings           50

The types of intimate partner  violence perpetrated among couples  50

The relationship between educational status and intimate partner violence

among couples   51

The relationship  between age and  intimate partner violence among couples     52

The relationship between gender and intimate partner violence among couples        53

The relationship between employment status and intimate partnerviolence among couples            53

Conclusion      53

Implications of the Study              54

Recommendations                          55

Limitation of the Study                    56

Suggestions for Further Studies      57

Summary of the Study                      57



Background Of Study

It is often assumed that romantic relationships are all about love, security and protection but paradoxical to this idea, an intimate partner does not always offer love and security.

There is evidence that a substantial percentage of people incur the risk of experi- encing violent acts from their intimate partner at least once in their lifetime (e.g., Archer, 2000; Garcia-Moreno, Jansen, Heise, Ellsberg & Watts, 2006).

In the United States, for example, one survey found that during one day an average of over 16 calls per minute were directed to intimate partner hotlines across the country (Awake, 2013).

The Awake went further to explain that the situation is worse than statistics reveal since many incidents go unreported.

An intimate partner is a person with whom one has a close personal relationship that may be characterized by the partners’ emotional connectedness, regular contact, ongoing physical contact and sexual behavior, identity as a couple, and familiarity and knowledge about each other’s lives (Breiding, Basile, Smith, Black & Mahendra, 2015).

Although  it  may also include people in dating relationships, same sex spouses and those  who  are  engaged to be married, betrothed or ‘promised’ under  traditional  cultural  practices.

However, in this study, the term ‘intimate partner’ shall be used in reference to heterosexual married spouse. Intimate partners may experience violence in their relationship.


Afifi, T.O., MacMillan, H., Cox, B. J., Asmund- son, G.J., Stein, M.B., & Sareen, J. (2009). Mental health correlates of intimate partner violence in marital relationships in a nationally representative sample of males and females. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 1398–1417. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1177/0886260508322192

Anderson, K. L. (2002). Perpetrator or victim? Relationships between intimate partner violence and well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 26, 851–863. DOI: 3737.2002.00851.

Aluede, O. (2011). Managing bullying problems in Nigerian secondary schools: some counselling interventions for implementation. The African Symposium, 11 (1), 138– 145.

Agnew, Robert (1992) Foundation for a General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency,Criminology ,30 (10), 47–87

Archer, J. (2000). Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: A meta- analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 651–680. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.1037//0033-2909.126.5.651 Bradbury, T. N.,

Awake (April,2013) An End to Domestic violence. Vol 94, No. 4. Page 9 Retrieved from

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