Semantic Redundancy in Students’ Speeches.

Table Of Contents

Title Page             i

Certification          ii

Dedication             iii

Acknowledgements                iv

Table of Contents            vi


  • Background of Study 1
  • Aim and Objectives 2
  • Significance of Study 2
  • Scope and Limitation 3
  • Research Methodology 3
  • Definition of Terms 3
  • Conclusion 4


    • Introduction 5
    • Semantics Defined 5
    • Theories in Semantics 8
      • Model Theoretic Semantics 8
      • Formal or Truth Conditional Semantics 8
      • Lexical and Conceptual Semantics 9
      • Computational Semantics 9
    • Word Meaning 10
      • Synonymy 10
      • Antonymy 10
      • Polysemy 11
      • Homonyms 11

  • The Relationship between Sentences 11
    • Paraphrases 11
    • Entailment 12
    • Contradiction 13
    • Ambiguity 14
  • Semantics and Semiotics 15
  • Semantics and Meaning 16
    • Connotation 17
    • Denotation 17
    • Extension and Intention 17
  • Redundancy 18
  • Conclusion 20


  • Introduction 21
  • Method of Data Collection 21
  • Method of Data Analysis 22
  • Conclusion 22


  • Presentation and Analysis of Data 23
  • Data Analysis 25
  • Discussion of Findings 30
  • Conclusion 36


  • Introduction 37
  • Summary 37
  • Conclusion 38

Reference        40


Background Of Study

This project is an attempt to study some of the semantic redundancies found in students’ speech. This is with a view to identify some long observed peculiarities in the use of redundancy in the students’ use of English.

In the context of language studies, semantics occupies the end continuum. Semantics is at the top level because it deals with communication and interpretation.

The major problem is with the definition of the subject simply as the study of meaning. Meaning is the target/goal in language. In whatever we do, we try to get meaning. The challenge is trying to find the meaning of meaning itself

Ogden and Richard (1923) said the major problem in semantics is trying to control “what is meaning”.

This project work is concerned with the repetitions made by students while speaking.

However, any issue raised here would be considerably discussed and illustrated with adequate examples. Thus the findings of this work will on the other hand add to the existing literature(s) on semantic redundancy as a localized contribution to knowledge.


Bussmann, H. (2008). Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistcs. Routledge Company. p. 399-400.

Crystal, D. (2009). Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. John Wiley and Sons Company. p. 406          -407.

Donald, D. (2005). Truth, Language and History. Oxford University Press. p.376.

Levin, B. and Pinker, S. (1991). Lexical and Conceptual Semantics.Blackwell Publishing, Cambridge.

Lobner,   S.   (2002).   Understanding  Semantics.   Blackwell   Publishing, Cambridge.

Peregrin, J. (2003). Meaning: The Dynamic Turn. Current Research in the Semantic/Pragmatic Interface. Elsevier ltd, London.

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