Effects of Levels Of Processing, Distinctiveness and Gender on Prospective Memory.


This study investigated the effects of levels of processing, distinctiveness and gender on event-based and time-based prospective memory.

One hundred and  twenty  students  (60 males and 60 females) of Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki (EBSU) with a mean age of years participated in the study. The stimulus material was a meaningful prose passage.

Event-based and time-based prospective memory were tested with the Prospective Memory Test (PMT).

Data were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance  (MANOVA)  and  results reveal a significant main effect of levels of processing, distinctiveness and gender on prospective memory.

There was also a significant interaction effect  of levels of processing  and gender on event-based prospective memory (P<0.05).

The implications of findings were discussed and suggestions for further studies made


Title Page i
Dedication ii
Acknowledgements iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Figures vi
List of Table vii
Abstract viii


Statement to the problem 11
Purpose to the study 11
Operational definition of terms 11


Theoretical Review 13
Empirical Review 24
Summary of Literature review 52
Hypotheses 57


Participants 58
Materials 58
Procedures 59
Design/Statistics 62



Summary and Conclusion 73
Limitations of the Study 74
Suggestion for Further Research 74
References 75
Appendices 89


Many life activities cannot be immediately performed because of various contextual, physical, or temporal constraints.

In any of these situations, people or individual can form an intention to fulfill the activity at a later point in time or future, when the opportunity affords itself (Gene, Justin, Richard &Nash, 2010).

Prospective memory involves the integration of cognitive processes and skill required to fulfil a preplanned future action (Ellis &Kvavilashvili,2000) such as remembering to attend postgraduate proposal tomorrow.

According to Ingo and Matthias (2010) the ability of remembering to initiate and execute an intended action at some time in the future (while being engaged  in  an  attentionally demanding ongoing activity) is called prospective memory (PM).

Piauilino, Tufik, Bitten- Court, Santosilva, Hachul, Gorenstein, and Pompeia  (2010)  defines  prospective memory as the ability to  become aware of a previously formed plan or intention  at the right time and place, in the absence of an explicit of remembering operation in future.

Stefan and Beat (2014) see PM as the planned action. Brandimonte, McDaniel, and Einstein, (1996, 2014) referred PM to the memory required to carry out planned actions at the appropriate time, such as meeting a friend for lunch or taking a medication.


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Abdolmajid, B., Negisa, B., Ahmad, S., Morad, R.A.,& Sirvan,  A.M. (2013).  Gender  and  age differences in time-base prospective memory. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 3(11), 111-116.

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American Psychological Association(1992).Ethical Principles of Psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist,47,1597-1611

Anna, L.C., Alexander, J., Even, H., Yon, S., & Peter, M.G. (2012). The specificity of prospective memory costs. Memory, 20(8), 848-864.

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