Development and Validation of Circulation Software Package for Libraries in Federal Universities of North Central, Nigeria.


The aim of this study was to investigate the development and validation of circulation software package for university libraries in Federal Universities of North Central Zone, Nigeria.. Specifically, five purposes and three research questions guided the study.

Related literature was reviewed under conceptual framework, theoretical framework and related empirical studies. The study adopted descriptive survey at first after which it will adopt Research and Development (R&D).

The study was carried out in North Central Zone, it has population of 155 comprising librarians and other library personnel who have worked in circulation department from seven federal university libraries in the zone.

The study used purposive sampling technique to sample 108 librarians and other library personnel. From the above population one hundred and eight (108) questionnaires were distributed filled and returned; representing a return rate of 70%.

The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency tables and mean scores. And the decision rule for research questions one through three was based on whether the mean score value was lower than or equal to and above the criterion mean value of 2.50 for either rejection or acceptance.

The findings of the study shows: that federal university libraries under study to high extent employ manual procedures in carrying out basic circulation functions such as registering users at the circulation Desk, charging out items to users at circulation Desk, Discharging and renewing items to users at the circulation desk.

The study revealed that majority of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed that Fast report generation is not possible, Tracing a book on the library shelf is difficult, Information about issue/return of the books are not properly maintained.

No central database can be created as information is not available in database, Difficulty in determining if a patron has overdue, the manual charging was characterized by long queues and unnecessary delays, manual card systems basically provide just one access point, the due date is on a card that has been lost.

It is possible to have two (or more!) cards for each item, Waste the users time, The process is cumbersome and Inefficiency in service delivery.

Finally, the finding also shows that majority of the respondents have little or no skill in Software design, Software installation/operations, Web design, Digitization and imaging technology, Online cataloguing(MARC) and OCR Devices classification (NLM).

It also revealed that respondents have low skill in automated circulation system and System analysis and design.

However, the table indicated that most of the respondents have a very high skill in MSOffice, Database searching technique and Transformation of data.

Recommendations were made as follows; Libraries should encourage the production of local library application software by patronizing them and even be part of the software development.

There is need for constant training and re-training of staff in the proper handling of Information and Communication Technology equipment and process so as not to run in to trouble, staff such as programmers, analysts, and operators should be employed to handle the computer system and train the librarians on basic trouble shooting.

ICT facilities and other equipment should be made available for staff at the circulation desk, white the outdated ones should be replaced and each university library should have a stand-by generator and UPS to guard against power failure and its damage of the automation equipment.

The project development of library circulation Software package that was developed based on the findings of initial descriptive survey carried out to manage the daily book transaction and manage the  member, books record more efficiently to improve management of the book property in the library.

This library circulation Software package is mainly  use  by  librarian,  library  admin and users. Besides that, library circulation Software package also allows user to search for availability of books by Title, Author and ISBN via World Wide Web. The methodology adopted to develop this system is waterfall model.

Thus, the work chapters included system planning, requirement analysis, system design, programming, system and testing, of the project. The software is available on-line via http//


Title page           i

Approval Page          iii

Certification page         iv

Dedication         v

Acknowledgement             vi

Table contents         vii

Abstract                  x


Background of the study                       1

Statement of the problem             8

Purpose of the study                     9

Research Questions                9

Significance of the study                9

Scope of the study                 11


Conceptual Framework          13

University Library              13

Library Circulation      14

Application of software in Library             18

The Need for Software in University Library           20

Software use in Nigeria university libraries           26

System development Approach            29

Theoretical Framework                  31

Review of related Empirical studies           32

Summary of the Literature Review        36


Design of the Study               38

Area of the Study            39

Population of the Study          39

Sample and Sampling Technique                40

Instrument for Data Collection            40

Validation of the Instrument         41

Method of Data Collection         41

Method of Data Analysis            42

CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation of Results

Summary of Major Findings           49

CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion

Discussion of Findings                      51

Implications of the Study                      55

Development and Validation of Library Circulation Software Package                          56

Recommendations          64

Suggestion for Further Studies               64

Limitation of the Study                      65


1.1 Background of the study

University libraries are essential contributors to knowledge generation and  serve  a wide spectrum of knowledge seekers. In fact, university libraries have been described as the “heart” of the university, because they provide a place for students and faculty to do their research and advance their knowledge.

The fundamental role of any university library is to collect, process, store, disseminate and utilize information to provide services to the academic and research community.

Librarians and library staff  provide  numerous  services,  ranging from acquisition, cataloguing, circulation serial and reference services to  their  users in  order to address their diverse needs and interests. Both the faculty and students depend heavily on  the library for information that is necessary in pursuing their individual and collective goals (, 2010).

University libraries have different categories of users’ namely the academic staff (i.e. lecturers), undergraduate students, post graduate students, research fellows,  administrative staff, alumni among others.

Ifidon and Okoli (2002) note that universities have five (5) functions: Pursuit, promotion, and dissemination of knowledge; Provision of intellectual leadership; Manpower development; Promotion of social and economic modernization; Promotion of intra- and inter-continental and international understanding.


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