Motivation, Personality and Cultural Attribution of Causality as Factors in Sense of Home Safety Among Staff of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.


The study used a cross-sectional design and hierarchical multiple linear regression, including Heyes Mediation Analysis, to examine motivation, personality and cultural attribution of causality in home safety behaviour among 957 teaching and non-teaching staff (57.2% male; 42.8% female) of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Participants selected by simple random sampling and volunteer sampling methods, were administered the Global Motivation Scale– GMS-28 (Guay et. al., 1999), The Big-Five Personality Inventory (John & Srivastava, 1991), Cultural Attribution of Causality Scale (CACS) and Proactive Home-Safety Behaviour Scale (PHSBS).

Three factors of motivation, five factors of personality and cultural attribution of causality were hypothetically tested as factors in PHSB. According to the results, motivation significantly predicted PHSB internal and external cues though; extrinsic motivation was not significant with internal cues of PHSB.

Personality factors showed significant predictive relationship with PHSB cues. CAC did show a significant predictive correlation with PHSB internal (R2 = .01, F = 7.48, p < .01) and External (R2 = .01, F = 6.93, p < .01) cues.

Age, educational qualifications, personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness) and CAC mediated between intrinsic motivation and PHSB external cues.

With openness, the relationship between extrinsic motivation and PHSB external cues was mediated alongside other factors in the mediation relationship between intrinsic motivation and PHSB external cues. Personality factors (conscientiousness and openness) mediated between amotivation and PHSB internal cues.

In conclusion, motivation, personality and CAC predicted PHSB. However, personality, CAC, age and educational qualifications mediated between intrinsic or extrinsic motivation and PHSB external cues.

Whereas conscientiousness and openness mediated the relationship between amotivation and PHSB internal cues. Implications, limitations and recommendations were made.


Title page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract viii
Table of Contents ix
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii

CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1

Statement of the Problem 31
Purpose of the Study 34
Operational Definition of Terms 35

CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 36

Theoretical Review 36
Psychological Approaches 36
Psychoanalytic approach 36
Psychosocial approach 37
Attachment theory 39
Maslow’s theory of motivation 40
Socio-cultural Approach 41
Technical Model 43
Empirical Review 45
Proactive Home-safety Behaviour and Motivation 45
Proactive Home-safety Behaviour and Personality Types 50
Proactive Home-safety Behaviour and Cultural Locus of Causality 56
Home Safety Related Literature Review 63
Review of Scales on Safety 66
Summary of Literature Review 77
Positive-Negative Environmental Interaction (P-NEI) Model of PHSB 80
Hypotheses 83


Participants 85
Instruments 85
Procedure 92
Design/Statistics 93


Summary of Findings 116

CHAPTER FIVE Discussion 118

Implications of the study 127
Limitations of the study 129
Recommendations 130
Summary and Conclusion 131
References 133


Safety is one of the major factors put into consideration when decisions about home of residence are made. Homes of residence are usually situated in almost every permissible area within the environment. While some parts of the environment may be prone to safety threats and challenges, other parts may be ‘tightly’ secured.

In some cases however, environments of residence have been completely safety porous. Environments that are prone to safety threats demand from the inhabitants extreme safety consciousness and safety behaviours with the aim of warding-off or minimizing the level of external sources to home safety threats.

Such people residing in homes situated in safety prone environments are persuaded (by the porous safety environment) to exhibit external safety behaviourial cues aimed at securing one from the so called external sources of home safety threats.

On the other hand, those residents of homes situated in secluded environments tend to focus less on the external sources of threats to home safety but more on their internal safety behaviours.

This is because they feel most of the external sources of home threats would have been taken care of by whatever means of their safety machinery.

Therefore, in a typical environment, safety behaviours abound. But the nature of the environment habouring homes of residence accounts for whether the inhabitants could exhibit home safety external or internal behavioural cues.


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