Prevalence and Characteristics of Extended Beta-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteria in Cattle and Chickens Slaughtered at Ikpa Market, Nsukka, Enugu State.


This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing enterobacteria in chickens and cattle slaughtered at Ikpa market, Nsukka;

to identify the types of ESBL enzymes harboured by the ESBL-producing bacteria isolates and to determine the antibacterial résistance phenotype and genotype of the ESBL-producing isolates.

This study adopted a survey design. It was conducted at Ikpa market, Nsukka, Enugu State Nigeria. The market was purposively selected because it is a major market in Nsukka Agricultural zone where large number of chickens and cattle are sold or slaughtered.

The chickens and cattle used for the study were selected by systematic random sampling of those slaughtered. A total of 210 cloacal and rectal swab samples each were collected from slaughtered chickens and cattle, respectively, between April and June, 2012.

The samples were streaked on MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime (2µg/ml) and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Colonies on this medium were purified and identified using colonial, microscopic and biochemical characteristics following standard procedures.

Detection of ESBL production among the isolates was done by the double disc synergy test using Oxoid cefpodoxime kit and in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.


Background of Study

Antibacterial agents are widely used in veterinary and human clinical practice for the prevention and the treatment of bacterial diseases.

Antibiotics are natural antibacterial agents which are produced by microorganisms that kill or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms (Rang et al., 1995).

Most antibacterial agents are now produced semi-synthetically by chemical modifications of naturally occurring compounds (Crag and Stitzel, 1994).

Apart from antibiotics, there are also chemical antibacterial that interfere directly with the proliferation of microorganisms at concentration that are tolerated by the host (Davis et al., 1973).

However, the effectiveness of antibacterial agents against bacterial organisms is based on the principle of selective toxicity which is accounted for by the variation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell wall (Todar, 2002).

Generally, antibacterial agents are classified based on their mode of action as those that interfere with cell wall synthesis (e.g. beta-lactams and glycopeptides), those that inhibit protein synthesis (macrolides, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol,

streptogramins and oxazolidinones), those that interfere with nucleic acid synthesis (sulfonamide and diaminopyrimidines), and those that inhibit a metabolic pathway for folic acid synthesis which ultimately inhibit DNA synthesis and they include sulfonamides and trimethoprim (Neu, 1992; Tenover, 2006 ).


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