Prevalence of Hypertension among Pregnant Women in Nsukka Urban, Enugu State (2007 – 2011).


The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension among pregnant women in Nsukka Urban from 2007-2011.To achieve the purpose of the study, five objectives were formulated with corresponding research questions and four hypotheses were formulated.

The descriptive survey research method utilizing the expost- facto design was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a researcher designed hypertension in pregnancy inventory Proforma (HIPI).

Five experts in the Department of Health and Physical Education and Department of Science Education validated the proforma. The population for the study consisted of all registered pregnant women in the twenty –three health facilities in Nsukka urban of Nsukka L.G.A in Enugu State from 2007-2011.

This gave an estimated population of 23,520 pregnant women, while the sample for the study consisted of 706 cases. Data collected from the health facilities were used for analysis.

In analyzing the data, frequencies and percentages were used to answer the research questions while chi-square statistic was used to test all the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance.

The result of the study showed that the highest prevalence cases (26.3%) and (25.1%) were recorded in 2007 and 2009 respectively while the lowest prevalence cases occurred in 2010 (14.5%).

Pregnant women aged 30-49 years recorded the highest prevalence of (90.7%) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in pregnant women aged 15-29 years (9.5%).

Prevalence of hypertension was also higher in pregnant women who have up to 6-9 children and above (66.9%) while lowest prevalence occurred in pregnant women who have 0-5 pregnancies.

The highest cases of prevalence of hypertension among pregnant women were recorded among the uneducated pregnant women (65.4%) while the educated pregnant women recorded the lowest.

Pregnant women who are civil servants and traders recorded the highest prevalence of (75.7%) cases of hypertension while those who are house wives and farmers recorded the lowest.

From the findings of the study, it was therefore recommended that there should be continual increase in creation of awareness on possible factors that can predispose pregnant women to hypertension as this has been shown to be responsible in the reduction of hypertension.

Awareness should be created for women on the dangers of late pregnancy cases, so as to enable them control their chances of getting pregnant as they get older.

Adequate birth control measures should be put in place and adopted by women so as to check the number of children a woman will have thereby reducing their chances of hypertension cases during pregnancy, poor level of education has been implicated in the high prevalence of hypertension.

Therefore adequate awareness and education should be provided for pregnant women with primary education on the factors associated with hypertension, It is also recommended that appropriate policies should be put in place by the government to reduce work load on women during pregnancy, such policies may include among others pregnancy leave or break.


Title Page i
Approval ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgments v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables vii
Abstract viii

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 7
Purpose of the Study 8
Research Questions 8
Hypotheses 9
Significance of the Study 9
Scope of the Study 10

CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature

Conceptual Framework 11
Measurement of prevalence 14
Demographic factors associated with prevalence of hypertension among
pregnant women 16
Theoretical Framework 20
Hierarchy of needs 20
Self care theory 21
Empirical Studies on Prevalence of Hypertension among Pregnant Women 24
Summary of Literature Review 33


Research Design 35
Area of the Study 35
Population for the Study 36
Sample and Sampling Techniques 36
Instrument for Data Collection 37
Validity of the instrument 37
Reliability of the instrument 37
Method of Data Collection 37
Method of Data Analysis 38

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion

Results 39
Summary and Findings 48
Discussion 49

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Summary 53
Conclusions 54
Recommendations 55
Limitations of the Study 55
Suggestion for Further Study 56
References 57
Appendices 64


1.1 Background to the Study

Globally, pregnant mothers face different complications that may endanger their lives and their foetuses. Such complications include haemorrhage, obstructed labour, sepsis, abortion and hypertension.

Among these complications, hypertension contributes directly or indirectly to millions of material deaths each year around the world. Lucas and Gilles (2003) opined that in many developing countries, complications of pregnancy and child birth are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age.

Hypertension in pregnancy has been a disease of great concern. UNICEF (2001) and WHO (2002) estimated that in Nigeria, there is a raising prevalence of pregnancy induced-hypertension ranging from 10-15 per cent of direct medical causes of maternal mortality.

Worldwide, it is far greater problem with an estimated 72, 000 deaths annually due to lack of awareness of the health problem (Baker, 2006).

Similarly, this disease is at a high prevalence in Nigeria which is a developing country where health services and facilities are not yet adequately made available to the population.

James and Piercy (2004) observed that hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered in pregnancy and remains an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are among the leading causes of maternal mortality, along with thromboemboilsm, haemorrhage and nonobstetric injuries.

They further stated that hypertension in pregnancy is one of the most serious morbidity conditions of the expectant mother, which the cause remains unknown.


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