Effect of Processing Methods on the Quality of Ugba(Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth).


African oil bean seed slices (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) were prepared by two traditional methods, packaged in sterilized plastic containers and fermented at two different temperatures (ambient (28 ± 2 oC) and 37.5 oC temperature) for 96 hours to produce Ugba (a Nigerian indigenous protein rich food).

Proximate analysis (moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate and fibre content), physicochemical analysis (peroxide, saponification, iodine, pH value), protein solubility and microbial analysis were carried out.

These Analyses were carried out at 24 hours interval for 96 hours.

The result showed an increase in protein, fat, crude fibre and ash contents of the samples after 96 hours of fermentation with an increase in pH value and a decrease in carbohydrate content for all samples after 96 hours fermentation.

The peroxide values, iodine values, and saponification values of the oils decreased while the protein solubility content increased with fermentation time.

The result of the total viable counts were 2.74×1017 Cfu/g, 2.34×1017 Cfu/g, 2.18×1017 Cfu/g, 2.9×1017 Cfu/g, for sample A1 (boiled twice and fermented at 28 ± 2 oC ambient temperature)

A2 (boiled twice and fermented at 37.5 oC), B1 (boiled once and fermented at 28 ± 2 oC ambient temperature), B2 (boiled once and fermented at 37.5 oC), respectively after 96 hours fermentation.

No mould growth was found in the unfermented and fermented Ugba slices for all the products.


Background Of Study

Ugba is the Igbo name for sliced fermented African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

The African oil bean seed is called several names in Nigeria, such as “Apara” by the Yoruba, “Ugba” or ” Ukpaka” by the Igbo’s (Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2005).

It is consumed mostly in the eastern states of Nigeria as a local delicacy popularly known as “African salad” prepared with oil, pepper, fish and salt and also prepared with tapioca, stockfish and garden eggs.

It can be eaten with boiled or roasted yam and cocoyam (Okafor et al., 1991; Mbajunwa et al., 1998). Ugba is a traditional food generally prepared in homes as a small family business.

Its method of preparation varies from one place to another resulting in a non-uniform product (Njoku and Okemadu, 1989).

According to Enujiugha (2000), “Ugba” is produced traditionally by boiling the seeds overnight for easy removal of the seed coat.

The cotyledons are sliced and cooked until they are soft with reduced bitter taste. The sliced “Ugba” is washed about 5 times or more and fermented for 3 days (Enujiugha, 2000).

According to Enujiugha (2003), the cooked, processed and fermented seed “Ugba” is used to prepare some delicious African soup and sausages for eating different staples.

Enujiugha (2003) also noted that it is a rich source of vitamins and minerals, having a high demand for local and export consumption.

Previous research showed that fermentation gives a better nutritional product than the raw seed (Achinewhu, 1986; Enujiugha and Olagundoye, 2001).

According to Siggel and Faucet (1976), fermentation is the oldest method of processing legumes.


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